# Wage gap

Gross monthly wage by professional position and gender, 2016, Middle value (median), in Swiss francs - private and public sectors combined
Professional position Total Women Men Gap in %
Total 6 502 6 011 6 830 12.00
1+2 10 310 8 861 10 878 18.54
3 8 328 7 580 8 760 13.47
4 6 977 6 481 7 238 10.46
5 5 935 5 607 6 121 8.40
Professional position :
1+2 = Top, upper and middle management
3 = Lower management
4 = Lowest management level
5 = No management function

## Analysis of the gender wage gap - Results up to 2016

Due to the measurement method, the arithmetic mean (average) is used to calculate the wage gap instead of the median which is commonly used as the reference value in the FSO’s descriptive analyses. The analysis of the wage gap (explained and unexplained share) based on the Oaxaca model is a breakdown of the difference in average wages.

A one-time analysis of the wages 2008 based on NOGA 2002 and NOGA 2008 was carried out (NOGA = General Classification of Economic Activities). The results vary. Explanation: The mathematical model to analyse the salaries of women and men takes account, among other factors, of the economic branch. The transition from the NOGA 2002 to the NOGA 2008 classification has a corresponding influence on the results.

Explained and unexplained share in gender pay gap - Results based on NOGA 2008 (new standard)
2008 2010 2012 2014 2016
Percentage of gap that can be explained: Due to explainable factors 60.4% 62.4% 59.1% 60.9% 57.1%
Percentage of gap that can be explained: No explainable reasons for gap 39.6% 37.6% 40.9% 39.1% 42.9%
Private sector Source: Swiss Earnings Structure Survey, Calculation Department of Quantitative Economics, University of Fribourg, Büro BASS, B,S,S.Volkswirtschaftliche Beratung AG

Explained and unexplained share in gender pay gap - Results based on NOGA 2002
1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008
Percentage of gap that can be explained: Due to explainable factors 58,9% 55,6% 58,0% 60,5% 61,4% 61,1%
Percentage of gap that cannot be explained: No explainable reasons for gap 41,1% 44,4% 42,0% 39,5% 38,6% 38,9%
Private sector Source: Swiss Earnings Structure Survey, Calculation Büro BASS and Bern University

Gender pay gap and unexplained share in gender pay gap by economic branch - Private sector, Switzerland 2016
Economic
division (NOGA08)
Economic branch Gender pay gap (mean) Unexplained share in gender pay gap
in % in CHF in % in CHF
Total private sector 19.6 1 532 42.9 657
10-12 Manufacture of food products and
tobacco
19.2 1 251 68.4 856
13-15 Manufacture of textiles and apparel 23.1 1 503 40.0 601
18 Printing, reproduction of recorded media 18.6 1 282 65.6 842
19-21 Manufacture of chemicals and pharmaceutical products 10.8 1 140 56.9 649
26-30/33 Manuf. of machinery and equipment 23.0 1 834 52.5 964
35 Energy supply 20.4 1 885 40.7 768
47 Retail trade 17.8 1 074 65.4 702
49-53 Transportation and storage 11.2 774 64.6 500
55-56 Accommodation and food service
activities
8.3 407 80.3 327
58-63 Information and communication 22.0 2 197 36.4 800
64-66 Financial and insurance activities 33.3 4 243 30.6 1 297
68 Real estate activities 23.5 2 018 23.5 474
69-75 Professional, scientific and technical activities 24.2 2 422 21.7 527
85 Education 13.2 1 072 52.7 564
86-88 Human health and social work activities 18.6 1 452 33.5 486
90-93 Arts, entertainment and recreation 16.3 1 164 53.3 620
94-96 Other service activities 22.5 1 765 19.9 351

Gender pay gap and unexplained share in gender pay gap - Public sector (Confederation, cantons, districts, communities, corporations, churches), Switzerland 2016
Gender pay gap (mean) Unexplained share in gender pay gap
in % in CHF in % in CHF
Totale public sector 16.7 1 498 34.8
522

## Further information

On behalf of the Swiss Federal Statistical Office and the Federal Office for Gender Equality, regular, in-depth analyses of gender wage gaps were made.

## Contact

Federal Statistical Office Section Wages and Working Conditions
Espace de l'Europe 10
CH-2010 Neuchâtel
Switzerland

### Remark

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