# Wage gap

Gross monthly wage by professional position and gender, 2020, Middle value (median), in Swiss francs - private and public sectors combined
Professional position Total Women Men Gap in %
Total 6 665 6 211 6 963 10,80
1+2 10 531 9 249 11 116 16,80
3 8 762 8 101 9 145 11,42
4 7 287 6 844 7 547 9,31
5 6 062 5 787 6 214 6,87
Professional position :
1+2 = Top, upper and middle management
3 = Lower management
4 = Lowest management level
5 = No management function

## Analysis of the gender wage gap

Due to the measurement method, the arithmetic mean (average) is used to calculate the wage gap instead of the median which is commonly used as the reference value in the FSO’s descriptive analyses. The analysis of the wage gap (explained and unexplained share) based on the Oaxaca model is a breakdown of the difference in average wages.

A one-time analysis of the wages 2008 based on NOGA 2002 and NOGA 2008 was carried out (NOGA = General Classification of Economic Activities). The results vary. Explanation: The mathematical model to analyse the salaries of women and men takes account, among other factors, of the economic branch. The transition from the NOGA 2002 to the NOGA 2008 classification has a corresponding influence on the results.

Explained and unexplained share in gender pay gap - Results based on NOGA 2008 (new standard) - Private sector
2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020
Percentage of gap that can be explained: Due to explainable factors 60.4% 62.4% 59.1% 60.9% 57.1% 55.7% 54.7%
Percentage of gap that can be explained: No explainable reasons for gap 39.6% 37.6% 40.9% 39.1% 42.9%
44.3% 45.3%
Source: Swiss Earnings Structure Survey (ESS), Calculation: Department of Quantitative Economics, University of Fribourg, Büro BASS, BSS Volkswirtschaftliche Beratung AG

Explained and unexplained share in gender pay gap - Results based on NOGA 2002 - Private sector
1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008
Percentage of gap that can be explained: Due to explainable factors 58,9% 55,6% 58,0% 60,5% 61,4% 61,1%
Percentage of gap that cannot be explained: No explainable reasons for gap 41,1% 44,4% 42,0% 39,5% 38,6% 38,9%
Source: Swiss Earnings Structure Survey (ESS), Calculation: Büro BASS and Bern University

Gender pay gap and unexplained share in gender pay gap by economic branch - Private sector, Switzerland 2020
Economic
division (NOGA08)
Economic branch Gender pay gap (mean) Unexplained share in gender pay gap
in % in CHF in % in CHF
Total private sector 19.5 1 599 45.3  724
10-12 Manufacture of food products and
tobacco
19.5 1 335 56.7  756
13-15 Manufacture of textiles and apparel 21.6 1 381 58.5  808
18 Printing, reproduction of recorded media 19.1 1 393 41.7  581
19-21 Manufacture of chemicals and pharmaceutical products 8.1  908 89.8  816
26-30/33 Manuf. of machinery and equipment 21.5 1 764 51.7  913
35 Energy supply 16.0 1 532 64.1  982
47 Retail trade 17.3 1 093 57.5  628
49-53 Transportation and storage 10.6  703 84.4  593
55-56 Accommodation and food service
activities
8.7  443 57.4  255
58-63 Information and communication 22.8 2 446 43.4 1 062
64-66 Financial and insurance activities 32.4 4 309 34.2 1 472
68 Real estate activities 22.5 2 010 33.2  667
69-75 Professional, scientific and technical activities 25.1 2 658 29.7  791
85 Education 12.5 1 046 56.0  586
86-88 Human health and social work activities 19.5 1 602 34.9  559
90-93 Arts, entertainment and recreation 15.2 1 113 36.0  401
94-96 Other service activities 20.2 1 624 30.4  494
Source: Swiss Earnings Structure Survey (ESS), Calculation: BSS Volkswirtschaftliche Beratung AG

Gender pay gap and unexplained share in gender pay gap - Public sector (Confederation, cantons, districts, communities, corporations, churches), Switzerland 2020
Gender pay gap (mean) Unexplained share in gender pay gap
in % in CHF in % in CHF
Total public sector 15.1 1 373 46.7
642
Source: Swiss Earnings Structure Survey (ESS), Calculation: BSS Volkswirtschaftliche Beratung AG

Gender pay gap and unexplained share in gender pay gap – total economy, Switzerland 2020
Gender pay gap (mean) Unexplained share in gender pay gap
in % in CHF in % in CHF
Total total economy 18.0 1 500 47.8
717
Source: Swiss Earnings Structure Survey (ESS), Calculation: BSS Volkswirtschaftliche Beratung AG

## Further information

On behalf of the Swiss Federal Statistical Office and the Federal Office for Gender Equality, regular, in-depth analyses of gender wage gaps were made.