Adapted migration status for measuring integration
To measure integration, the basic typology of the population by migration status is slightly adapted: the population with a migration background includes all foreign nationals (including third generation foreign nationals). This population also includes first generation naturalised Swiss citizens, second generation naturalised Swiss citizens with at least one parent born abroad and Swiss nationals from birth, both of whose parents were born abroad.
In 2021, 39% of Switzerland's permanent resident population aged 15 or over had a migration background. While 31% were first generation, 7% belonged to the second or subsequent generations. These are the populations for which integration in Switzerland’s society is to be measured.
Two other population typologies
The migration status of the permanent resident population cannot be deduced from all statistical sources used to measure integration as they do not all provide the necessary variables for its construction. We therefore have to use:
- The typology based on place of birth;
- The typology based on nationality.
In 2021, 31% of the permanent resident population were born abroad and 26% were foreign nationals. These two percentages are thus lower than the share of persons with a migration background (39%).
System of integration indicators
The FSO provides a system of indicators on integration of the population with a migration background, which comprises around forty indicators, divided into eight areas of life. This system of indicators allows us to compare the situation over time of the population with a migration background – first generation or second or subsequent generations – with that of the population without a migration background.
The migration status typology is relevant to observe the integration process and is recommended by Eurostat for this purpose. However, migration status alone cannot explain the differences between these population groups. Other variables such as sex, age and educational attainment must also be taken into account.
Find out more about this system by clicking the link integration indicators.