A group of the permanent resident population with above-average accused rates for a selection of offences could indicate insufficient integration in society. The offences were selected on the basis of the following criteria:
- linked to the accused’s social situation (theft, for example);
- linked to the opportunities and hurdles present in the accused's future prospects and the construction of their identity in the society in which they live (violent offences such as common assault).
Offences related to domestic violence were excluded from this analysis as they concern a separate issue. In order to compare a group that is relevant from a criminological point of view, the indicator shown here focuses on men aged 18 to 32 who live permanently in Switzerland. A link has been shown to exist between crime and a person’s age and gender.
According to Kuhn, young men represent a typical profile universally and at all times. They are likely to commit offences to make themselves stand out (demonstrating their existence) as a “reaction to their poorly structured social position”. As soon as a person’s social identity is established, criminality decreases: in other words, it decreases the older a person becomes [André Kuhn, Sommes-nous tous des criminels? Brief introduction to criminology, Charmey: Les Ed. de l'Hèbe, 2012].
Restriction: Nationality is not a criminogenic factor, except for persons from a country at war. Apart from the person’s sex and age, no socio-economic data are available in the police crime statistics (PCS) that would enable causality to be assessed. Only accused persons whose offences have been solved by the police are available.