Persons perceived as or considering themselves to be black, in principle mainly people of African descent. According to the UN, people of African descent can be defined as comprising African victims of the slave trade, Africans and their descendants who after the independence of their country emigrated to or left for work in Europe, Canada or the Middle East.
Racism is an ideology that classifies people into groups on the basis of real or imagined differences (ethnicity, nationality, religion, etc.) considered immutable. The proponents of racism claim that people belong to a group by attributing to them a common pseudo-biological or cultural origin. A racist attitude need not (necessarily) be based on an explicit ideology, it can also be based on diffuse biological assumptions.
Racism towards Black people refers directly to a visible characteristic, namely skin colour. In this form of racism, negative attitudes or personality traits are attributed to a person based on their physical appearance. Racism towards Black people is decisively supported by the images and values that were shaped by slavery and colonialism. At the interindividual level, it is understood as a situation, act or event by which individuals who are perceived or consider themselves black feel, because of their skin colour or other phenotypic traits, denigrated, ridiculed, excluded or otherwise discriminated against (in public or in private).
Old forms of racism (or “traditional racism”)
Pseudo-scientific racism based on the biological and genetic principles of different human races.
New forms of racism
Cultural racism, without race, or neo-racism: valorisation of cultural or ethnic differences, without biological reference, tending to make these differences appear natural and inherent.
Insidious, subtle racism: more indirect forms of racism which sometimes go as far as presenting cultural differences in a (pseudo) positive form.
Everyday racism: repeated questions or gestures that can be insidiously racist but sometimes motivated by ignorance, stupidity or simple curiosity.
Institutional, contextual racism: the result - intentional or otherwise - of public policy or certain institutions, which are not able to guarantee equal opportunities and which may even favour the stigmatisation or exclusion of certain groups.