Persons aged 15 or over with dual citizenship represented 19% of the Swiss permanent resident population (999 000 people) in 2019. Within this population of dual nationals, 65% obtained Swiss nationality through naturalisation, whereas 35% acquired it at birth.
A breakdown by individual nationality shows that the most frequent second nationality among dual nationals is Italian (24%), followed by French (11%) and German (9%).
A majority of persons who, in addition to Swiss nationality, have one of the ten most frequent second nationalities, have obtained Swiss citizenship through naturalisation. This situation is particularly marked among North Macedonians, Serbians and Kosovars with dual citizenship. More than 90% of people within these populations obtained Swiss nationality through naturalisation. In contrast, for French, Italian or British dual nationals, the percentages of individuals who obtained Swiss nationality at birth and of those who obtained dual citizenship through naturalisation are more similar (difference of less than 20 percentage points). Swiss-French dual nationals are the only ones among whom more individuals obtained Swiss nationality at birth rather than through naturalisation (59% compared with 41%).
The proportions of dual nationals in the individual cantons vary. At the national level, 19% of the Swiss permanent resident population aged 15 or over has a second nationality (in addition to Swiss nationality). This percentage is higher than 20% in the cantons of Zurich, Basel-Stadt, Ticino, Vaud, Neuchâtel and Geneva, where it reaches 47%. The cantons with the smallest proportion of dual nationals are Uri, Obwalden, Nidwalden and Appenzell I.Rh. where it does not exceed 10%.
Dual citizenship (also called dual nationality) is defined as having at least two different nationalities. In this analysis, however, only persons who hold Swiss citizenship in addition to one (or more) foreign citizenship are taken into account. These people are considered Swiss in the statistics. They may be Swiss by birth (born to one Swiss parent and one foreign national parent) or through naturalisation.