Observed turnover figures are typically expressed in monetary terms, known-as nominal terms. In principle, figures in nominal terms consist of a monetary (price) and a quantitative component. Price changes may thus significantly influence turnover figures in nominal terms. Figures in real terms account for the fact that prices may change over time. Adjusting for price changes thus makes quantities, (figures in real terms), comparable. The procedure is to simply estimate the price changes with the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and filter out the price changes from the figures in nominal terms - the result is figures in nominal terms.
No, absolute figures are not published and are not supplied upon request.
The figures are standardised, so that in a certain year (the base year), the annual average is 100.
The growth rates are calculated on a year-to-year basis which means that the indicated growth rates represent the percentage change from a given month from one year to another. If the figures are seasonally adjusted, the growth rates are calculated on a month-to-month basis, which means that the indicated growth rates represent the percentage change from one month to the next.